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PhD student: band structure/bending of adsorbates and
contacts on Ga2O3 and In2O3



Overview of the research project:

This project is dedicated to the investigation of the electronic structure of oxide semiconductors by surface-sensitive techniques, namely angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy.

We investigate the electronic states of clean surfaces of Ga2O3, In2O3 and ternary compounds thin films and characterise the band energies and compare them to theoretical calculations.

We are also interested in higher Miller-indices surfaces and in materials with other crystal structures, namely α-Ga2O3, to gather information on the surface stability, termination and defect density and energy. The electronic information is complemented by structural STM data.

In the case of In2O3, we investigate the temperature-dependent behaviour of the electronic states near the Fermi level to collect evidence of a lifetime broadening induced by polarons. In this case, we expect a strong support from the theoretical groups of the project, which involves the calculation of the In2O3 spectral function.

Major accomplishments expected:

  • Measurement of the band structure and the surface topography of ternary thin films.
  • Characterization of the point defects in ternary compounds and comparison with the STM data obtained on single-crystal Ga2O3.
  • Measurements of the temperature-dependence of the bottom of the conduction band in In2O3 and identification of the polaronic effects and their contribution to the peak width (lifetime of the state)


Collaboration with partners in the project:

O. Bierwagen (PDI) and G. Wagner (IKZ) are providing samples. We are working closely in order to understand the coexistence of conductivity and transparency in these materials.

A fruitful collaboration with the theoretical groups is required with regard to the planned investigation of the states near the Fermi level in In2O3. The theory group is supporting the project with many-body calculations of the spectral function which include the broadening due to polarons.

M. Dähne's unit provides information about the methodology and the results obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy.


Who we are looking for:

All advertised PhD projects are located within the field of physics. We are looking for highly motivated young researchers with a highly qualified Master in Physics or a closely related field.

How to apply:

If you are interested in this project, please email a full electronic application including a motivational letter, CV, personal references/letter of recommendation (if available), Bachelor and Master certificate and transcript of records, using the project number C2-5 to:

Please note:

While this call for applications is advertised by the GraFOx ScienceCampus, the recruitment process is performed by the partner institution.


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The Leibniz ScienceCampus GraFOx is a network of two Leibniz Institutes, two universities and one institute of the Max Planck Society. It is based in Berlin, Germany.


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Kai Hablizel

Paul-Drude Institut für Festkörperelektronik (PDI)
Leibniz-Institut im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V.
Tel.: +49 30 20377-342




Prof. Dr. Henning Riechert, PDI

Scientific Coordinator:

Dr. Oliver Bierwagen, PDI
Dr. Martin Albrecht, IKZ